1月 222009
 

今年是剑桥大学建校800周年。想想看,800年前,我们还是宋朝,是乔峰,虚竹,段誉那些人在瞎折腾,英国人就把剑桥建起了了,虽然不是世界上第一所大学(第一所大学是博洛尼亚大学),但这历史就已经比好多国家的历史要长得多了,如此大学怎能不受人尊敬?

这算是是剑桥大学的一个编年史了,我勉强试着翻译了一下,好久没翻译东西了,英语也扔了好久,所以勉强才翻译了一半,从1209年翻译到1899年,剩下20世纪和21世纪暂时是翻译不动了,等有时间再说了。当然,本人水平极为粗浅,所以一定有不到位之处,望诸位多多批评指正,一定知错就改。

看看下面的表,有太多太多对人类文明作出贡献的人物了,这才是一个大学应该做的事情。我们天朝的大学:厅级一礼堂,处级一走廊,科级一操场,此乃中国特色,无法与国际接轨。而真所谓大学,做大学问的地方,如果能再来点独立精神,自由思想就更好了。

看看人家,剑桥大学的校训是:Hinc lucemet pocula sacra(此乃启蒙之所,智识之源),多酷啊!

剑桥官方庆祝800周年网站?猛点这里!完全版的编年史?狠点这里

1200s | 1300s | 1400s | 1500s | 1600s | 1700s | 1800s

 

1209 Groups of scholars congregate at the ancient Roman trading post of Cambridge for the purpose of study, the earliest record of the University.为了研究,许多学者们聚在位于剑桥的古罗马 的商栈,这是关于大学最早的记录。
1284 Peterhouse, the first college at Cambridge, is founded by the Bishop of Ely.彼得豪斯学院 ,位于剑桥最早的大学,由伊利 主教建立。
1326 Clare College is founded.克莱尔学院成立。
1347 Mary, Countess of Pembroke, founds Pembroke College.玛丽·赫伯特 —— 彭布罗克 伯爵夫人,建立 彭布了罗克 学院。
1381 The Peasant’s Revolt. A mob led by the city’s mayor stormed Corpus Christi College, burning records and books, in protest against its rigid exaction of “candle rents”, or rent charges assessed upon houses in its ownership, according to the number of wax-tapers found. A wage freeze and a new poll tax ignites the Peasant’s Revolt. Led by Wat Tyler, the peasants march on London to protest, but King Richard’s forces behead Tyler and the uprising is swiftly crushed.农民起义。一次由市长领导的暴乱袭击了 基督圣体学院,烧毁了档案与书籍,以抗议对于“蜡烛租金”的严苛征收。由 瓦特·泰勒所领导,农民们跋涉到伦敦去进行抗议,但是 狮心王理查命令将泰勒斩首,由此很快引发了暴乱。
1446 Henry VI, founder of Eton and of King’s College, Cambridge, lays the first stone of King’s College Chapel. The founding charter of King’s was written by John Broke (documented 1443-1450) clerk of the chancery, and illuminated by the London artist William Abell (documented 1450-d.1474).亨利六世—— 剑桥伊顿和国王学院的建立者,为国王学院的礼拜堂奠基。成立特许状是由约翰·布洛克,衡平法院的书记员所书写,并由伦敦艺术家威廉·阿贝尔润色。
1503 Thomas Cranmer, aged 14, enters the newly-endowed Jesus College.托马斯·克兰默 在他14岁时进入刚刚被捐赠的耶稣学院学习。
1505 Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, founds Christ’s College.玛格丽特·博福特女士——亨利七世的母亲,成立了基督学院。
1511 Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, founds St John’s College.玛格丽特·博福特女士——亨利七世的母亲,成立了圣约翰学院。
1516 Desiderius Erasmus works on his translation of the Greek New Testament and on textbooks which were to become the staple of the ‘new learning’. His work led to him being considered the most important scholar of the Northern Renaissance.德西德里乌斯· 伊拉斯谟 为翻译 希腊文新约全书而工作,并且进行编纂教科书的工作,后来这套教科书成为“新学问”主要组成部分。他的工作使他被认为是 北方文艺复兴最重要的学者。
1533 Thomas Cranmer ends his career in Cambridge to become the first post-reformation Archbishop of Canterbury. While in the post, he annuls Henry VIII’s marriages to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn and divorces him from Anne of Cleves. He is also largely responsible for the Book of Common Prayer, the official directory of worship of the Church of England.托马斯·克兰默结束了他在剑桥的生涯,成为 改革后第一位坎特伯雷大主教。随后他撤销了亨利八世与 阿拉贡的凯瑟琳以及 安妮·博林 的婚姻,并使它和 克利夫斯的安妮离婚。他也在很大程度上对 英格兰教会的礼拜官方目录《公祷书》负责。
1546 Henry VIII founds Trinity College.亨利八世建立 圣三一学院。
1584 The Cambridge University Press, the world’s oldest-established press, begins its unbroken record of publishing every year until the present.剑桥大学出版社,也是世界上最早成立的出版社,开始创造无人能及延续至今的出版记录。
1600 Dr William Gilbert of St John’s publishes his ‘De Magnete’, a scientific work fundamental to the development of navigation and map making.圣约翰学院的威廉·吉尔伯特博士 发表了他的《磁论》,这是一本对于导航以及地图制作起重要作用的著作。
1625 John Milton enters Christ’s, where he studies until 1632. Five years later, on the death of his friend, Edward King, he writes Lycidas , recalling in pastoral terms their days together.约翰·弥尔顿进入基督学院学习,他在那里一直学习到1632年。五年以后, 因为他的朋友爱德华国王逝世,他写了《 失乐园 》,回忆了他们曾经的共同度过的田园时光。
1627 John Harvard enters Emmanuel College as an undergraduate. He later emigrates to America bequeaths his library and half his estate to the college founded in 1636 at Newtowne, Massachusetts. In 1638 the college was named for him and Newtowne was renamed Cambridge.约翰·哈佛作为一个本科生进入 伊曼纽尔学院学习。随后他移居美国。随后他移居美国,并把他的图书馆以及一半的地产遗赠给1636年建立在 马塞诸塞州纽敦镇的一所大学。在1638年,这所大学以他命名,并且 纽敦镇改名剑桥。
1628 William Harvey of Gonville and Caius College, publishes his celebrated treatise, ‘De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus’, (On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals), describing his discovery of the mechanism of blood circulation.康韦尔科斯学院的 威廉·哈维,发表了著名的《 关于动物心脏与血液运动的解剖研究 》,记述了他对于血液循环的研究。
1675 Charles II appoints John Flamsteed to the new post of Astronomer Royal. The following year, Flamsteed, educated at Cambridge, institutes reliable observations at Greenwich, near London, providing data from which Newton is later able to verify his gravitational theory.查理二世 任命 约翰·弗兰斯蒂德去新成立的 皇家天文学家任职。在随后的日子里, 弗兰斯蒂德在剑桥接受教育,并在伦敦附近的 格林尼治 创立了可靠的观测点,提供了后来牛顿验证万有引力所需的数据。
1687 Isaac Newton publishes ‘Principia Mathematica’, establishing the fundamental principles of modern physics.伊萨克·牛顿发表《 自然哲学的数学原理 》,建立了现代物理学的基础。
1704 The Plumian chair of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy is endowed by Thomas Plume of Christ’s. Subsequent incumbents include Roger Cotes, Sir George Biddel Airy, who was responsible for the first public observatory in Cambridge, James Challis, Sir George Darwin, son of the naturalist Charles Darwin, Sir Fred Hoyle and Sir Martin Rees.基督学院的 托马斯· 普鲁米捐赠了 天文学和实验哲学的 普鲁米教席。后来这一担任席位的包括 罗杰·柯特斯, 剑桥第一个公开天文台负责人 艾里爵士,詹姆斯· 查理士, 博物学家 查尔斯·达尔文 的儿子 乔治·达尔文爵土,恒星天文学之父 弗雷德·霍伊尔爵士,以及 皇家天文学家芮斯爵士。
1711 Richard Bentley, Regius Professor of Divinity from 1717, completes his edition of the Latin poet, Horace. His editing and interpretation of classical texts inspires all later generations of classics scholars.皇家神学教授理查德·本特利 牧师,自此1717年完成了他修订的拉丁语诗歌《 贺拉斯 》。他对古典文献的修订与翻译鼓舞了以后研究古希腊罗马语言文学的学者。
1762 The University’s first Botanic Garden is endowed by Richard Walker of Trinity.圣三一学院的理查德·沃克捐赠了大学第一个植物园。
1776 Cambridge graduates, Thomas Nelson, Trinity and later of Virginia; Arthur Middleton, St John’s and later of South Carolina and Thomas Lynch, Gonville and Caius and also of South Carolina, are among the signatories of America’s Declaration of Independence.剑桥毕业生, 圣三一学院 的托马斯·纳尔逊( 弗吉尼亚州 ), 圣约翰学院 的亚瑟·米德尔顿( 南 卡罗来纳 ), 冈维尔凯斯学院 的 托马斯·林奇( 南 卡罗来纳 ),后来成为美国独立宣言的签字者。
1784 The Rt Hon William Pitt of Pembroke is elected MP for the University at the age of 25, a year after becoming Prime Minister.来自于 彭布罗克学院的 威廉·皮特在他25岁时被选为校议会的议员,一年以后成为首相。
1787 Wordsworth enters St John’s, and publishes his first poem. He later became Poet Laureate.华滋华斯进入圣约翰学院,并发表了他第一首诗。 随后他成为了 桂冠诗人。
1805 Lord Byron enters Trinity and starts writing his early satires and poems.拜伦勋爵进入圣三一学院学习并且开始写他早期的 讽刺诗与诗歌。
1806 Viscount Palmerston is elected to Parliament three years after entering St John’s, beginning a distinguished lifetime’s career in Government, much of it as an MP for the University. He served two terms as Prime Minister, the first of which saw his vigorous prosecution of the Crimean war with Russia in 1855.在进入圣约翰学院三年以后,帕麦斯顿 子爵被选为议员开始了卓越的公职生涯。他担任了两任首相,第一任见证了他在1855年与俄国的克里米亚半岛战争。
1812 Charles Babbage, while an under-graduate at Peterhouse, has his first ideas for a calculating machine and later starts work on his ‘difference engine’, which he never completed but which heralds later inventions leading to the modern computer.查尔斯·巴贝奇 ,在 彼得豪斯学院就读期间,孕育了他第一次关于计算机器的设想,并且在随后开始致力于开发他的从未完成的“不同引擎”,但这预示了以后的发明,导致了现代计算机的出现。
1829 Alfred Tennyson, Trinity under-graduate, is awarded the Chancellor’s medal for his poem, ‘Timbuctoo’. In 1850, he publishes his major poetic achievement, ‘In Memoriam’, the elegy mourning the death of his friend, Arthur Hallam, also of Trinity, and succeeds Wordsworth as Poet Laureate.1829 also sees the staging of the first Boat Race between Cambridge and Oxford, won by Oxford.

圣三一学院的本科生 阿尔弗雷德·丁尼生,因为他的诗《 廷布图 》获得校长奖章。在1850年,他发表了他主要诗歌成就《 回忆中 》,沉痛悼念了他死去的朋友,也是他三一学院的同学 哈兰姆。

1829年也是剑桥与牛津首次赛艇比赛的年份。

1831 Charles Darwin of Christ’s is recommended by Botany Professor John Stevens Henslow to join HMS Beagle as the naturalist on its scientific survey of South American waters.基督学院的查尔斯·达尔文,被植物新教授 约翰·史蒂文斯·亨斯洛 推荐去参加英国皇家海军小猎犬的航行,作为一名博物学家去南美洲水域进行科学调查。
1847 Prince Albert, Consort of Queen Victoria, is elected Chancellor and becomes an influential voice for reform.阿尔伯特亲王,维多利亚女王的配偶, 被选为横评法院院长并且为改革摇旗呐喊。
1849 Thomas Babington Macaulay, Fellow of Trinity, publishes volumes one and two of his immensely popular ‘History of England’.托马斯·巴宾顿·麦考利 ,发表了两卷广受欢迎的《 英格兰史 》。
1851 The Natural Sciences Tripos is first examined, loosening the stranglehold of mathematics and classics on the syllabus, and opening the door to modern studies of the arts and sciences.自然科学荣誉学位首次开放,放松了对于数学和古希腊雅典经典文学的限制,同时打开了现代艺术与科学之门。
1859 Charles Darwin’s ‘On the Origin of Species’ is published. This was followed by The Descent of Man (1871) which argued that humans and apes shared a common ancestor – a theory which revolutionised our understanding of life.查尔斯·达尔文的 《物种起源》发表。以及随后的 认为人类和猿有着共同祖先的 《人类来历》,使得我们对于生命的理解有了一次革命性的变化。
1869 Emily Davies and others found Girton College, the first residential university-level institution of higher learning for women.艾米丽·戴维斯和其他人创立了 格顿学院,第一所大学水准的住宿女子学院。
1870 William Cavendish, seventh Duke of Devonshire, endows the University’s new Cavendish Laboratory for the study of experimental physics. Total cost: £8,450.威廉·卡文迪许, 德文郡的第七任公爵,给大学捐赠了新的卡文迪许图书馆供学习实验物理学。总共耗资:8,450英镑。
1871 James Clerk Maxwell returns to Cambridge as the first Cavendish Professor of Physics. Two years afterwards he publishes his ‘Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism’ and later outlines his theory of electromagnetic radiation, confirming him as the leading theoretical physicist of the century.詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦作为 首席卡文迪许物理学教授 回到剑桥。 两年后 ,在他发表 了《电磁通论》,并且随后概述了他关于电磁辐射的理论,证实了他在理论物理学领域世纪领先的地位。
1888 Frederic William Maitland is appointed Downing Professor of the Laws of England. He remains the outstanding figure in the understanding of the Mediaeval History and Law of England. His work secures Cambridge as one of the world’s leading centres for the study of legal history.梅特兰 被任命为英格兰法的唐宁教授。他对于英格兰中世纪历史和法律有着出色理解和认识。他的工作室的剑桥成为世界领先的法治史研究中心。
1897 J.J. Thomson, Cavendish Professor of Physics, discovers the electron, laying the foundations for the whole of modern physics, including electronics and computer technology. In following years, inventors use his work to develop new devices such as the telephone, radio and television.汤姆逊, 卡文迪许 物理学教授,发现了电子,为现代整个物理学基础打下基础,包括电子学与计算机技术。在随后的几年里,发明家们运用他的成果发展出许多新的设备,诸如电话,无线电和电视机。
1899 Lytton Strachey, Leonard Woolf and Thoby Stephen meet as under-graduates at Trinity and form the nucleus of what was to become known as the Bloomsbury Group.林顿·斯特来彻 , 伦纳德·伍尔夫与 索比·史蒂芬在圣三一学院相遇,成立了一个核心,后来发展为 布鲁姆斯伯里文化人集团。

  6 Responses to “剑桥大学,800年!”

  1. 呵呵,我想起了你跟我说的西邮50年校庆……

  2. 小卫星还说闲着了,明明在家里窝着搞翻译工作了。

  3. 剑桥100年搞一次校庆,北大10年搞一次校庆,由此可见“剑桥=10北大”

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